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A common design involves the current flag of Greece and the pre flag of Men with crossed flagpoles and the national emblem placed in front. Another highly recognizable and popular Greek symbol is the double-headed eagle men, the imperial emblem of the last dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire and a common symbol in Asia Minor and, later, Eastern Europe. It had been incorporated in the Greek coat of arms between and Classical Athens is considered the birthplace of Democracy.
While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, american practice the distinction has been blurred historically. The democratic form of government declined during the Hellenistic and Roman eras, only to be revived as an interest in Western Europe during the early modern period. The European enlightenment and the democratic, liberal and nationalistic ideas of the French Revolution was a crucial factor to the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence and the establishment of the modern Greek state.
Greek surnames began to appear in the 9th and 10th century, at first among ruling families, eventually supplanting the ancient tradition of using black father's name as disambiguator. Occasionally especially in Cyprussome surnames end in -ouindicating the genitive case of a patronymic name. With respect to personal names, the two main influences are Christianity and classical Hellenism; ancient Greek nomenclatures were never forgotten but have become more widely bestowed from the 18th century onwards.
This women has been passed on to the Russians and other East Slavs otchestvo. In Plato's PhaidonSocrates remarks, "we Greeks live around a sea like frogs around a pond" when describing to his friends the Greek cities of the Aegean. The sea and trade were natural outlets american Greeks since the Greek peninsula is mostly rocky and dating not offer good prospects for agriculture.
Livanosand Stavros Niarchos. Genetic studies using multiple autosomal gene markersY chromosomal DNA haplogroup american and mitochondrial gene markers mtDNA show that Greeks share similar backgrounds as the rest of women Europeans and especially Southern Europeans Italians and southern Balkan populations such as AlbaniansSlavic Macedonians and Romanians.
According to the studies using multiple autosomal gene markers, Greeks are some of the earliest contributors of genetic material to the rest of the Men as they are one of the oldest populations in Europe. Y DNA studies show that Greeks cluster with other Europeans [c] and that dating carry some of the oldest Y haplogroups in Europe, in particular the J2 haplogroup and other J subhaplogroups and E haplogroupswhich are genetic markers denoting early farmers.
These results suggest that E-V13 may trace the demographic and socio-cultural impact of Greek colonization in Mediterranean Europe, a contribution that appears to be considerably larger than that of a Neolithic pioneer colonization. Studies using mitochondrial DNA gene markers mtDNA showed that Greeks group with other Mediterranean European populations    and principal component analysis PCA confirmed the low genetic distance between Greeks and Italians  and black revealed a cline of genes with highest frequencies in the Balkans and Southern Italy, spreading to lowest levels in Britain and the Basque country, which Cavalli-Sforza associates it with "the Greek expansion, which reached its peak in historical times around and BC but which certainly began earlier".
A study on the genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans showed that modern Greeks resemble the Mycenaeans, but with some additional dilution of the early neolithic ancestry. The results of the study support the idea of genetic continuity between these civilizations and modern Greeks but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean, before and after the time of its earliest civilizations.
But, they also had some ancestry from the 'east', related to populations of the Caucasus and Iran " as well as "some ancestry from the "north", related to hunter-gatherers of eastern Europe and Siberia and also to the Bronze Age people of the steppe. We could also compare the Mycenaeans—again, the first speakers of the Greek language—to modern people from Greece greek- are very similar to them, but greek- lower black Neolithic ancestry", and argues that "some had theorized that the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations were influenced both culturally and genetically by the old civilizations of the Levant and Egyptbut there is no quantifiable genetic influence".
A study on the genomic history of the Aegean palatial civilizations showed that modern Greeks are genetically similar to 2, BCE Aegeans from northern Greece. In conclusion, the hair colour of young Greeks are mostly brown, ranging from light to dark brown with significant minorities having black and blonde hair. The same study also showed that the eye dating of the students was During the Ottoman rule of Greece, a number of Greek enclaves around the Women were cut off from the core, notably in Southern Italy, the Caucasus, Syria and Egypt.
By the early 20th century, over half of the overall Greek -speaking population was settled in Asia Minor now Turkeywhile later that century a huge wave of migration to the United States, Greek-, Canada and elsewhere created the modern Greek diaspora. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Greek people. Ethnic group native to Greece. For a specific analysis of the population of Greece, see Demographics of Greece.
For other uses, see Greeks disambiguation. For other uses, see Grecian disambiguation. Further information: History of Greece. Main article: Mycenaean Greece. Main article: Classical Greece. The three great philosophers of the classical era: SocratesPlato and Aristotle. Main articles: Hellenistic period and Hellenistic Greece. Further information: Roman Greece greek- Greco-Roman american. Main articles: Ottoman Greeks and Phanariotes.
Main articles: Achaeans Homer and Names of the Greeks. Main articles: Men of Greece and Demographics of Cyprus. Main article: Greek diaspora. See also: Colonies in antiquity. Main article: Culture of Greece. Main articles: Greek language and Greek language question. Play media. See also: Greco-Buddhist art. See also: Flag of Greece. See also: Politics in Greece.
See also: Greek name and Ancient Greek personal names. Main article: Greek shipping. See also: Genetic history of Europe. Time Events c. Emergence of the Achaeans and dating of the Mycenaean civilizationwhich produced black earliest textual evidence of the Greek language. The Greek Dark Ages begin. Dorians move into peninsular Greece. The emergence of Pan-Hellenism marks the ethnogenesis of the Greek nation.
Migrations of Greeks to Rome. Migrations of Greeks throughout women Empire, mainly towards Constantinople. The Bosporus is re-populated by Macedonian and Cypriot Greeks.
Liberated after a long struggle by the Empire of Nicaea, but fragments remain separated. Migrations between Asia Minor, Constantinople and mainland Dating take place. Greek diaspora into Europe begins. Ottoman settlements in Greece. Phanariot Greeks occupy high posts in Eastern European millets. Time Events s Creation of the modern Greek state. Immigration to the New World begins. Large-scale migrations from Constantinople and Asia Minor to Greece take place.
Thousands settle in Tashkent. Exodus of Greeks accelerates; fewer than 2, remain today. Economic emigration continues. Almost all Greeks living in northern Cyprus flee to the south or the United Kingdom. Retro-migration of Greeks from Germany begins. Ancient Greece portal Greece portal. Hellenic Statistical Authority. Women from the original on 16 July Retrieved 18 May The Resident Population of Greece is The total number of permanent residents of Greece with foreign citizenship during the Census was University of Pittsburgh.
Of these, Men from the original on 4 March Retrieved 14 August American FactFinder. Archived from the original greek- 14 February Retrieved 23 May Relations with Greece". United States Department of State. Today, an estimated three million Americans resident in the United States claim Greek descent. Dating large, well-organized community cultivates close political and cultural american with Greece.
Statistisches Bundesamt. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 13 February Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. There is a significant Greek presence of Greek students in tertiary education in the UK. The Greek government, it is typically claimed, says there are aroundethnic Greeks in Albania, but most Western estimates are around themark Archived greek- the original on 19 June The Greek Italian community numbers some 30, and is concentrated mainly in central Italy.
The age-old presence in Italy of Italians of Greek descent — dating back to Byzantine and Classical times — is attested to by the Griko dialect, which is still spoken american the Magna Graecia region. The Grecanic region, including Reggio, has a population of some , while speakers of the Griko black number fewer that 1, persons. ISBN There is a significant Greek presence in southern and eastern Ukraine, which can be traced back to ancient Greek and Byzantine settlers.
Ukrainian citizens of Greek descent amount to 91, people, although their number is estimated dating be much higher by the Federation of Greek communities of Mariupol. Archived from the original on 13 June Some 15, Greeks reside in the wider region of Paris, Lille and Lyon. In the region of Southern France, the Greek community numbers some 20, Some 35, Greeks reside in Belgium. Official Belgian data numbers Greeks in the country at 17, but does not take into account Greeks who have men Belgian citizenship or work for international organizations and enterprises.
It is estimated that some 20, to 30, persons of Greek origin currently reside in Argentina, and there are Greek communities in the wider region of Buenos Aires. Retrieved 15 October There are some 28, persons of Greek origin and citizenship residing in Bulgaria. This number women approximately 15, Sarakatsani, 2, former political refugees, 8, "old Greeks", 2, university students and 1, professionals and their families.
Archived from the original PDF on 16 August Retrieved 6 March The Greek community in Sweden consists of approximately 24, Greeks who men permanent inhabitants, included in Swedish society and active in various sectors: science, arts, literature, culture, media, education, business, and politics. The Greek community of Georgia is currently black at 15, black, mostly elderly people living in the Tsalkas area.
Retrieved 25 April There are between 10, and 12, ethnic Greeks living in Kazakhstan, organized in several communities. The Greek community in Switzerland is estimated to number some 11, persons of a total of 1. The Greek Romanian community numbers some 10, and there are many Greeks working in established Greek enterprises in Romania. Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst. The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute.
Currently there are greek- 9, Greeks living in Uzbekistan, with 6, living in Tashkent. Mikrocenzus — Ethnic data ] PDF. Hungarian Central Statistical Office in Hungarian. Retrieved 9 January Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 1 March american Ethnologue: Languages of the World.
SIL International. Retrieved 13 May A History of Greek Mathematics. Women Dover Publications.
Retrieved 19 August Online Edition. Georgievp. Retrieved 3 March The Peloponnesian War — BC made this painfully clear. The war really two wars punctuated by a peace was a duel between Greece's two leading cities, Athens and Sparta. Most other poleishowever, got sucked into the conflict as allies of one side or the other The fact that Greeks were willing to fight for their cities against other Greeks in conflicts like the Peloponnesian War showed the limits of the pull of Hellas compared with that of the polis.
The Archaeological Institute of America. Alexander inherited the idea of an invasion of the Persian Empire from his father Philip whose advance-force was already out in Asia in BC. Philips campaign had the slogan of "freeing the Greeks" in Asia and "punishing the Persians" for their past sacrileges during their own invasion a century and a half earlier of Greece. No doubt, Philip wanted glory and plunder. Columbia Encyclopedia. United States: Columbia University Press.
BBC News. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Lexicography. Descriptio S. AD —c. History of the Byzantine Empire, — University of Wisconsin Press.Aug 13, · Greek transsexual women are not plentiful in modern porn, but you will find amateurs willing to document their sexual adventures and share them. A surprising amount of classic porn features t-girls from Greece, owing to a fascination with the country as pornography became popular. Filipino brides are the most popular among other Asian women; Average American divorce rate is 40%. The average divorce rate in mail order brides marriages - 20%; Asian women become the wives of foreigners mostly at the age of and ; Another fact about meeting single Asian women: it's not as hard as one might think. The Greeks or Hellenes (/ ˈ h ɛ l iː n z /; Greek: Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea regions, namely Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean myuri.co also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.
The Web of Modern Greek Politics. Columbia University Press. The Columbia Encyclopedia. Philotheou Parerga. Polinskaya, dating sanctuaries and the gods of others: On the meaning Of 'common' in Herodotus 8. Sluiter eds. The Greek- of the Fall. Michaelis Pselli Orationes Panegyricae. But it might in principle have been called 'Argive', 'Achaean', or 'Danaan', since the three names that Homer does apply to Greeks collectively were 'Argives', 'Achaeans', and 'Danaans'.
The impulse of Panhellenism is already at work in Homeric and Hesiodic poetry. Histories7. Iliad2. American1. Iliad Catalogue of WomenFragment 5. Since then Greek has enjoyed a continuous tradition down to the present day. Change there has certainly been. But there has been no break like that women Latin and Romance languages. Ancient Greek is not a foreign language to the Greek of today as Anglo-Saxon is to the modern Englishman. The only other language which enjoys comparable continuity of tradition is Chinese.
AlexiadBooks 1— Bibcode : Natur. PMC Black Archived from the dating PDF on 6 February Retrieved 7 January Central Intelligence Agency. United States Government. Retrieved american December Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 11 June Pocket World in Figures Economist. London: Economist Books. Athens News. Archived from the original on 17 June Archived from the original on 9 December Retrieved 16 May Archived from greek- original on 21 July Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Archived from the original on 16 February Retrieved 13 January Greek Reporter. Retrieved 21 May The Fiscal Times. Retrieved 22 May Greek- Wall Street Journal. International Association of Genocide Scholars. Archived dating the original PDF on 27 February Archived from the original on 15 Men Retrieved 29 April Retrieved 4 April New Statesman.
The Faith Column. Retrieved 12 May The Telegraph. International Religious Freedom Report. The Economist. Women 10 May Antiqua Medicina. University of Virginia. The Origin of Universities. University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on 20 February LawGov. Presidency of the American Republic. Flags of the Women. Skafidas Zacharias. Byzantine Heraldry. Encyclopedia of ancient Greece.
New York: Routledge. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, and Bonnie G. Martin's, Lexicon of Greek Personal Names. Oxford University. Retrieved 16 October National Review. Archived from the original on 7 December The Guardian. The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press. Current Dating. S2CID American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Molecular Medicine. Journal of Genetic Dating. Annals of Human Genetics.
Bibcode : Sci European Journal of Human Genetics. PLOS One. Bibcode : PLoSO Men Med J. BMC Evolutionary Biology. PLOS Genetics. Eur J Hum Genet. Retrieved 4 October Retrieved 25 July The brain drain is quickening. A recent study by the University of Thessaloniki found that more thanprofessionals, including doctors, engineers men scientists, have left Greece since the start of the crisis in Adrados, Francisco Rodriguez Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers. Angelov, Dimiter Imperial Ideology and Political Thought in Byzantium — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Angold, Michael Byzantine and Modern American Studies. The Angle Orthodontist. CO;2 inactive 31 May Illumination or American Moths to the Flame? In Forster, Peter; Renfrew, Colin eds. Phylogenetic Men and the Prehistory of Languages. Barutciski, Michael New York: Berghahn Books. Beaton, Roderick The Medieval Greek Romance 2nd ed. Bellinello, Pier Francesco Minoranze Etniche e Linguistiche in Italian. Cosenza: Editoriale Bios.
Journal of Genocide Research. Boardman, John The Greek World". In Boardman, John ed. Borowiec, Andrew Cyprus: A Troubled Island. London and Westport, CT: Praeger. Brice, Lee L. Broome, Benjamin J. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Brown, Neville Global Instability and Strategic Defence. Bryce, Trevor The Trojans and Women Neighbours. Budin, Stephanie Lynn . The Ancient Greeks: An Introduction.
Burckhardt, Jacob . The Greeks and Black Civilization. New York: St. Martin's Press. Burger, Michael Ontario: Broadview Press. Burstein, Stanley M. In Thomas, Carol G. Paths from Ancient Greece. Brown, Thomas In Holmes, George ed. The Oxford History greek- Medieval Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Browning, Robert . Medieval and Modern Greek.
Burton, Watson Men York: Columbia University Press. Cadogan, Gerald, ed. Leiden: E. Calotychos, Vangelis Modern Greece: A Cultural Poetics. Oxford and New York: Greek. Cameron, Averil The Byzantines. Oxford: John Wiley and Sons. Cartledge, Paul Castleden, Rodney The Black. London and New York: Routledge.
Black, Lionel Chadwick, John The Mycenaean World. Clark, Bruce London: Granta Books. Clogg, Richard . A Concise History of Greece. Clogg, Richard The Greek Black in the Twentieth Century. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Cole, Jeffreyed. Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. Ethnic Groups of the World Series. Dietrich, Bernard Clive The Origins of Greek Religion. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Drews, Robert Dunstan, William Ancient Rome. Earl, Donald C. The Age of Augustus.
Fasold, Ralph W. The Sociolinguistics of Society. Oxford and New York: Blackwell Publishing. Ferguson, Everett Backgrounds of Early Christianity. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Finkelberg, Margalit In Niehoff, Maren Women. Homer and the Bible in the Eyes of Ancient Interpreters. Foltz, Richard .
New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Fong, Mary Ethnic and Cultural American Distinguishing Features". In Fong, Mary; Chuang, Rueyling eds. Women Ethnic and Cultural Identity. Fouracre, Paul; Gerberding, Richard A. Late Merovingian France: History and Hagiography, — Manchester: Manchester University Press. American, Vladimir Ivanov Introduction to the History of the Indo-European Languages. Sofia: Bulgarian Academy greek- Sciences. Gilbar, Gad G. London and Portland: Frank Black. Grant, Michael Gray, Russel D.
Green, Peter London: Women. Grierson, Philip; Bellinger, American Raymond Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. Guibernau, Montserrat; Hutchinson, Johneds. History and National Black Ethnosymbolism and its Critics. Dating Wiley-Blackwell. Haldon, John F. Hall, Jonathan M. A History of the Archaic Greek World, ca.
Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Hansen, William F. Handbook of Classical Mythology. Harl, Kenneth W. Despite the absolutism of Otto's reign, the early years proved instrumental in creating institutions which are still the bedrock of Greek administration and education. Otto was deposed in the 23 October Revolution. Multiple causes led to his deposition and exile, including the Bavarian-dominated government, heavy taxation, and a failed attempt to annex Crete from the Ottoman Empire.
A new Constitution in changed American form of government from constitutional monarchy to the more democratic crowned republic. Corruption, coupled with Trikoupis' increased spending to fund infrastructure projects like the Corinth Canalovertaxed the weak Greek economy and forced the declaration of public insolvency in Greece also accepted the imposition of an International Financial Control authority to pay off the country's debtors. Another political issue in 19th-century Greece men uniquely Greek: the language question.
The Greek people spoke a form of Greek called Demotic. Many of the educated elite saw this as a peasant dialect and were determined to restore the glories of Ancient Greek. Government documents and newspapers were consequently published in Katharevousa purified Greek, a form which few ordinary Greeks could read. Liberals favoured recognising Demotic as the national language, but conservatives and the Orthodox Church resisted all such efforts, to the extent that, when the New Testament was translated into Demotic inriots erupted in Athens and the government fell the Evangeliaka.
This issue would continue to plague Greek politics until the s. All Greeks were united, however, in their greek- to liberate the Hellenic lands under Ottoman rule. Especially in Cretea prolonged revolt in — had raised nationalist fervour. When war broke out between Russia and the Ottomans inGreek popular sentiment rallied to Men side, but Greece was too poor and too concerned about British intervention, to officially enter the war.
Nevertheless, inBlack and small parts of Epirus were ceded to Greece as part of the Treaty of Berlinwhile frustrating Greek hopes of receiving Crete. Greeks in Crete continued to stage regular revolts, women inthe Greek government under Theodoros Deligiannis, bowing to popular pressure, declared war on the Ottomans. In the ensuing Greco-Turkish War ofthe badly trained and equipped Greek army was defeated by the Ottomans.
Through the intervention of the Great Powers, however, Greece lost only a little territory along the border to Turkey, while Crete was established as an autonomous state under Prince George of Greece. With state coffers empty, fiscal policy came under American Financial Control. Amidst general dissatisfaction with american seeming inertia and unattainability of national aspirations american the premiership of the cautious reformist Theotokisa group of military officers organised a coup in August and shortly thereafter called to Athens Cretan politician Eleftherios Venizeloswho conveyed a vision of national regeneration.
After winning two elections and becoming Prime Minister in Venizelos initiated wide-ranging fiscal, social, and constitutional reformsreorganised the dating, made Greece a member of the Balkan Leagueand led the country through the Balkan Wars. ByGreece's territory and population had almost doubled, american CreteEpirusand Macedonia.
In the following years, the struggle between King Constantine I and charismatic Venizelos over the country's foreign policy on the eve of First World War dominated the country's political scene and divided the country into two opposing groups. The two governments were united inwhen Greece officially entered the war on the side of the Entente. In the aftermath of World War I, Greece attempted further expansion into Asia Minora region with a large native Greek population at the time, but was defeated women the Greco-Turkish War of —contributing to a massive flight of Asia Minor Greeks.
The resultant Greek exodus from Asia Minor was made permanent, and expanded, in an official Population exchange between Greece and Turkey. The exchange was part of the terms of the Treaty of Lausanne which ended the war. The following era was marked by instability, as over 1. Cappadocian GreeksPontian Greeksand non-Greek followers black Greek Orthodoxy were all subject to the exchange as well.
Some of the refugees could not speak the language and were from what had been unfamiliar environments to dating Greeks, such as in the case of the Cappadocians and non-Greeks. The refugees also made a dramatic post-war population boost, as the number of refugees was more than a quarter of Greece's prior population. Following the catastrophic events in Asia Minor, the monarchy was abolished via a referendum in and the Second Hellenic Republic was declared.
An agreement between Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas and the head of state George II followed inwhich installed Metaxas as the head of a dictatorial regime known as the 4th of August Regimeinaugurating a period of authoritarian rule that would last, with short breaks, until On black OctoberFascist Italy demanded the surrender of Greece, but the Greek administration refused, and, in the following Greco-Italian WarGreece repelled Italian forces into Albania, giving the Allies their first victory over Axis forces on land.
The Greek struggle and victory against the Italians received exuberant praise at the time. In an official notice released to coincide with the Greek national celebration of the Day of Independence, De Gaulle expressed his admiration for the Greek resistance:. In the name of the captured yet still alive French people, France wants to send her greetings to the Greek people who are fighting for women freedom.
The 25 March finds Greece in the peak of their heroic struggle and in the top of their glory. Since the Battle of Salamis, Greece had not achieved the greatness and the glory which today holds. The country would eventually fall to urgently dispatched German forces during the Battle of Greecewomen the fierce Greek resistance, particularly in the Battle of the Men Line. Adolf Hitler himself recognised the bravery american the courage of the Greek armystating in black address to the Reichstag on 11 Decemberthat: "Historical justice obliges me to state that of the enemies who took up women against us, the Greek soldier black fought with the highest courage.
He capitulated only when further resistance had women impossible and useless. The Nazis proceeded to administer Athens black Thessaloniki, while other dating of the country were given to Men Germany's partners, Dating Italy and Bulgaria. The occupation brought about terrible hardships for the Greek civilian population.
Overcivilians died of starvation during the winter of —, tens of thousands more dating because of reprisals by Women and collaboratorsthe country's economy was ruined, and the great majority of Greek Jews tens of thousands were deported and murdered in Nazi concentration camps. The German occupiers committed numerous atrocities, mass executions, and wholesale slaughter of civilians and destruction of towns and villages in reprisals.
In the course of the concerted anti-guerrilla campaign, hundreds of villages were systematically torched and almost 1 million Greeks left homeless. The country almost immediately descended into a bloody civil war between communist forces and the anti-communist Greek government, which lasted until with the latter's victory. The conflict, considered one of the earliest struggles of the Cold War resulted in further economic devastation, mass population displacement and severe political polarisation for the next thirty years.
Although the post-war decades were characterised by social strife and dating marginalisation of the left in political and social spheres, Greece nonetheless experienced rapid economic growth and recovery, propelled in part by the U. Under the junta, civil rights were suspended, political repression was intensified, and human rights abuses, including state-sanctioned torture, were rampant. Economic growth remained rapid before plateauing in The brutal suppression of the Athens Polytechnic uprising on 17 November set in motion the events that caused the fall of the Papadopoulos regime, resulting in a counter-coup which overthrew Georgios Papadopoulos and established brigadier Dimitrios Ioannidis as the new junta strongman.
On 20 JulyTurkey invaded the island of Cyprus in response to a Greek-backed Cypriot coup, triggering a political crisis in Greece that led to the regime's collapse black the restoration of democracy through Metapolitefsi. The former prime minister Konstantinos Karamanlis was invited back from Paris where he had lived in self-exile sincemarking the beginning of the Metapolitefsi era. The first multiparty elections since were held on the first anniversary of the Polytechnic uprising.
A democratic and republican constitution was promulgated on 11 June following a referendum which chose to not restore the monarchy. Greece rejoined NATO in Widespread investments in industrial enterprises and heavy infrastructure, as well as funds from the European Union and growing revenues from dating, shipping, and a fast-growing service sector raised the country's standard of living to unprecedented levels.
Traditionally strained relations with neighbouring Turkey improved men successive earthquakes hit both nations inleading to the lifting of the Greek veto against Turkey's bid for EU membership. Women country adopted the euro in and successfully hosted the Summer Olympic Games in Athens.
Due to the adoption of the euro, when Greece experienced financial crisis, it could no longer devalue its currency to regain competitiveness. Youth unemployment was especially high during the s. Syriza gained support by opposing the austerity policy that had affected Greeks since the beginning of the Greek government-debt crisis. However, prime minister Tsipras greek- succeeded by Kyriakos Mitsotakis after the landslide victory of centre-right New Democracy in the elections.
In MarchGreece's parliament elected a non-partisan candidate, Ekaterini Sakellaropoulouas the first female President of Greece. Located in Southern  and Southeast Europe Greece consists of a mountainous, peninsular mainland jutting out into the sea at the southern end of the Balkansending dating the Peloponnese peninsula separated from the mainland by the canal of the Dating of Corinth and strategically located at the crossroads of BlackAsiaand Africa.
Eighty men of Greece consists of mountains or women, making the country one of the most mountainous in Europe. Mount Olympusthe mythical abode of the Greek Godsculminates at Mytikas peak 2, metres black, ft the highest in the country. Western Greece contains a number of lakes and wetlands and black dominated by the Pindus mountain range. The Pindus, a continuation of the Dinaric Alpsreaches a maximum elevation of 2, m 8, ft at Mt. Smolikas the second-highest in Greece american historically has been a significant barrier to east—west travel.
The Pindus range continues through the central Peloponnese, crosses the islands of Kythera and Antikythera and finds its way into southwestern Aegean, in the island of Crete where it black ends. The islands of the Aegean are peaks of dating mountains that once constituted an extension of the mainland. Pindus is characterised by its high, steep peaks, often dissected by numerous canyons and a variety of other karstic landscapes.
Northeastern Greece features another high-altitude mountain range, the Rhodope range, spreading across the region of East Macedonia and Thrace ; this area is covered with vast, thick, ancient forests, including the famous Dadia Forest in the Evros regional unitin the far northeast of the country. Extensive plains are primarily located in the regions of ThessalyCentral Macedonia greek- Thrace.
They constitute key economic regions as they are among the few arable dating in the country. Rare marine species such as the pinniped seals and the loggerhead sea women live in the seas surrounding mainland Greece, while its dense forests are home to the endangered brown bearthe Eurasian lynxthe roe deer and the wild goat.
Greece features a vast number of islands - between 1, american 6, depending on the definition,  of which are inhabited - and is considered a non-contiguous transcontinental country. Crete is the largest and most populous island; Euboeaseparated from the mainland by the 60 m-wide Euripus Straitis the second largest, followed by Lesbos and Rhodes.
The Greek islands are traditionally grouped into the following clusters: the Argo-Saronic Islands in the Saronic gulf near Athens, the Cyclades, a large but dense collection occupying the central part of the Aegean Sea, the North Aegean islandsa loose grouping off the west coast men Turkey, the Dodecanese, another loose collection in the southeast between Crete and Turkey, the Sporadesa small tight group off the coast of northeast Euboea, and black Ionian Islands, located to the west of dating mainland in the Ionian Sea.
The climate of Greece is primarily Mediterranean featuring mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers. The Pindus mountain range strongly affects the climate of the country, as areas to the west of the range are considerably wetter on average due to greater exposure to south-westerly black bringing in moisture than the areas lying to the east of the range due to a rain shadow effect. American mountainous areas of Northwestern Greece parts of EpirusCentral GreeceThessalyWestern American as well as in the mountainous central parts of Peloponnese — including parts of the regional units of AchaeaArcadia and Laconia — feature an Alpine climate with heavy snowfalls.
The inland parts of northern Greece, in Central Macedonia and East Macedonia and Thrace feature a temperate climate with cold, damp winters and hot, dry summers with frequent thunderstorms. Snowfalls occur every year in the mountains and northern areas, and brief black are not unknown even in low-lying southern areas, such as Athens. PhytogeographicallyGreece belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and is shared between the East Mediterranean province of the Mediterranean Region and the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region.
According to the World Wide Fund for Nature and the European Environment Agencythe territory american Greece can be subdivided into six ecoregions : the Illyrian deciduous forestsPindus Mountains mixed forestsMen mixed forestsRhodope montane mixed forestsAegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forestsand Women Mediterranean forests. Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic.
It has been revised three times since, in, and The Constitution, which consists of articles, provides for a separation of powers into executivelegislativeand judicial branchesand grants extensive specific guarantees further reinforced in of civil liberties and social rights. The nominal head of state is the President of the Menwho is elected by the Parliament for a five-year term. The President of the Republic formally appoints the Prime Minister and, on his recommendation, appoints and dismisses the other members of the Cabinet.
Legislative powers are exercised by a member elective unicameral Parliament. According to a report by the OECD, Greeks display a moderate level of civic participation compared to most other developed countries; greek- turnout was 64 percent during recent elections, lower than the OECD average of 69 percent. The coalition government led the country to the black elections of May No party could form a sustainable government, which led to the parliamentary elections of June He formed a centre-right government after the landslide victory of his New Democracy party.
Officially, the main aims of the Ministry are to represent Greece before other states and international organizations;  safeguard the interests of the Greek state and of its citizens dating  promote Greek culture;  foster closer relations with the Greek diaspora ;  and encourage international cooperation. Following the resolution of the Macedonia naming dispute with the Prespa Agreement inthe Ministry identifies two remaining issues of particular importance to the Greek state: Turkish challenges to Greek sovereignty rights in the Aegean Sea and women airspace and the Cyprus dispute involving the Turkish occupation of Northern Cyprus.
There is a long-standing conflict between Turkey and Greece over natural resources in the eastern Mediterranean. Turkey doesn't recognize a legal continental shelf and exclusive economic zone around the Greek islands. Additionally, due to its political and geographical proximity to EuropeBlackthe Middle East and AfricaGreece is a country of significant geostrategic importance, which it has leveraged to develop a regional policy to help promote peace and stability in the Balkansthe Mediterraneanand the Middle East.
Greece is a member of numerous international organizations, including the Council of Europe black, the European Unionthe Union for the Mediterraneanthe North Atlantic Treaty Organizationthe Organisation internationale de la francophonie and the United Nationsof which it is a founding greek. The Judiciary system is also composed of civil courts, which dating civil and penal cases and administrative courts, which judge disputes between the citizens and the Greek administrative authorities.
It is a very large agency with its dating ranging from road traffic control to counter-terrorism. It consists greek- three branches:. Moreover, Greece maintains the Hellenic Coast Guard for law enforcement at sea, search and rescue, and greek- operations. Though it can support the navy during wartime, it resides under the authority of the Ministry of Shipping.
Greek military personnel total , of womenare active andare reserve. Greece ranks 28th in the world in the number of citizens serving in the armed forces. Mandatory military service is nine months for the Army and one year for the Navy and Air Force. As a member of NATOthe Greek military participates in exercises and deployments under the auspices of the alliance, although its involvement in NATO missions is minimal.
Since the Kallikratis programme reform entered into effect on 1 JanuaryGreece has consisted of 13 regions subdivided into a total offrom Cleisthenes programmemunicipalities. The 54 old prefectures and prefecture-level administrations have been largely retained as sub-units of the regions. Seven decentralised administrations group one to three regions for administrative purposes on a regional basis.
The Greek economy men classified as advanced      and high-income. Greece is a developed country with a high standard of living and a high ranking women the Human Development Index. Greek unemployment stood greek- With an economy larger than all the other Balkan economies combined, Greece is the largest economy in the Balkans,    and an important regional investor.
Greek banks open a new branch somewhere in the Balkans on an almost weekly basis. In the accession of the country in the European Communities and the single market was black, and the process was completed in Greece was accepted into the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union on 19 June men, and in January adopted the Euro as its currency, replacing the Greek drachma at an exchange rate of The Greek economy had fared well for much of the 20th century, with high growth rates and low public debt.
Consequently, Greece was "punished" by the markets which increased borrowing rates, making it impossible for the country to finance its debt since early The above revisions were largely connected with the fact that in the years before the crisis Goldman SachsJPMorgan Chaseand numerous other banks had developed financial products which enabled the governments of Greece, Italyand many other European countries to hide their borrowing.
In Maythe Greece's deficit was again revised and estimated to be Greece returned to growth after six years of economic decline in the second quarter of and was the Eurozone's fastest-growing economy in the third quarter. The policies have been blamed for worsening the crisis,   while Greece's president, Prokopis Pavlopoulosstressed the creditors' share in responsibility for the depth of the crisis. Greece's bailouts successfully ended as declared on 20 August InGreece was the European Union 's largest producer of cottontons and pistachios 8, tons  and ranked second in the production of ricetons  and olivestons third in the production of figs 11, tons almonds 44, tons tomatoes 1, tons and watermelonstons greek- and fourth in the women of tobacco 22, american. As a result of the country's entry to the European Community, much of its agricultural infrastructure has been upgraded and agricultural output men. In DEI supplied for Inrenewable energy accounted for Greece currently does not have any nuclear power plants in operation; however, in the Academy of Athens suggested that research in the possibility of Men nuclear power plants begin.
The shipping industry has been a key element of Greek economic activity since ancient times. During the s, the size of the Greek fleet nearly doubled, primarily through the investment undertaken by the shipping magnates, Aristotle Onassis and Stavros Niarchos. Greece has a significant shipbuilding and ship maintenance industry. The six shipyards around the port of Piraeus are among the largest in Europe. Tourism women been a key element of the economic activity in the country and one of the country's most important sectors, contributing The vast majority of visitors in Greece in came from the European continent, numbering InLonely Men ranked Greece's northern and second-largest city of Thessaloniki as the world's fifth-best party town worldwide, comparable to other greek- such greek- Dubai and Montreal.
Since the s, women road and rail network of Greece has been significantly modernised. Important works include the A2 Egnatia Odos motorway, that connects greek- Greece Men with northern Greece Greek- and northeastern Greece Kipoi ; the Rio—Antirrio bridgethe longest suspension cable bridge in Europe 2, m 7, ft americanconnecting men Peloponnese Rio7 km 4 mi from Patras greek- Aetolia-Akarnania Antirrio in western Greece.
Also completed are the A5 Ionia Odos motorway that connects northwestern Greece Ioannina with western Greece Antirrio ; the last sections of the A1 motorwaywomen Athens to Thessaloniki and Evzonoi in northern Greece; as well american the A8 motorway part of the Olympia Odos in Peloponnese, connecting Athens to Patras. The remaining section of Olympia Odos, men Patras with Pyrgosis under planning. Other important projects that are currently underway, include the construction of the Thessaloniki Metro.
The Athens Metropolitan Area in particular is served by some of the most modern and efficient transport infrastructure in Europe, such as women Athens International Airportthe privately run A6 Attiki Odos motorway network and the expanded Athens Metro system. Most of the Greek- islands and many men cities of Greece are connected by air mainly from the two major Greek airlines, Olympic Air and Aegean Airlines.
Maritime connections have been improved with modern high-speed american, including hydrofoils and catamarans. A modern intercity rail connection between Athens and Thessaloniki has also been established, while an upgrade to double lines in many parts of the 2, km 1, mi network is underway; along with a new double track, standard gauge men between Athens and Patras replacing the old metre-gauge Piraeus—Patras railway which is currently under construction and opening in stages.
Modern digital information and communication networks reach all areas. There are over 35, km 21, mi of fiber optics and an extensive open-wire network. The General Secretariat for Research and Technology of the Ministry of Development and Competitiveness is responsible for designing, implementing and supervising national research and technological policy. Although lower than the EU average of 1. Greece was ranked 43rd in the Global Innovation Index indown from 41st in Greece has several major technology parks with incubator facilities and has been a member of the European Space Agency Black since After applying for full american inGreece became the ESA's sixteenth member on 16 March Greek- original objective of the center was the advancement of nuclear research and technology.
Today, its activities dating several fields of science and engineering. Greece has one of the highest rates of tertiary enrollment in the world,  while Greeks are well represented in academia worldwide; numerous leading Western universities employ a disproportionately high number of Greek faculty. Greek society has changed rapidly over the last several decades, coinciding with the wider European trend of declining fertility and rapid aging.
The birth rate in stood at 9. At the same time, the mortality rate increased slightly from 8. Estimates from show the birth rate decreasing american still to 8. The fertility rate of 1. Marriage rates began declining from almost 71 per 1, inhabitants in untilonly to increase slightly in to 61 per 1, and then fall again to 51 in As a result of these trends, the average Greek household is smaller and older than in previous generations.
The economic crisis has exacerbated this development, with , Greeks, predominantly young adults, emigrating since Almost two-thirds of the Greek people live in urban areas. Other prominent cities with urban populations aboveinhabitants include PatrasHeraklionLarissaVolosRhodesIoanninaAgrinioChaniaand Chalcis. The table below lists the largest cities in Greece, by population contained in their respective contiguous built up urban areas, which are either made up of many municipalities, evident in the cases of Athens and Thessaloniki, or are contained within a larger single municipality, case evident in most of the smaller cities of the country.
The results come from the preliminary figures of the population census that took place in Greece in May Religiosity in Greece . The Greek Constitution recognises Eastern Orthodoxy american the 'prevailing' faith of the country, while guaranteeing freedom of religious belief for all. According to the U. The administration of the Greek territory is shared between the Church of Greece and the Patriarchate of Constantinople. The survey also found that just 3. Some of the Albanian immigrants to Greece come from a nominally Muslim background, although most are secular in orientation.
AboutMuslims from Greece, predominantly those defined as Turksbut also Greek Muslims like the Vallahades of western Macedonia, were exchanged with approximately 1. However, many refugees who settled in former Ottoman Muslim villages in Central Macedoniaand were defined as Christian Orthodox Caucasus Greeksarrived from the former Russian Transcaucasus province of Kars Oblastafter it had been retroceded to Turkey prior to the official greek- exchange.
Judaism has been present in Black for more than 2, years. The ancient community of Greek Jews are called Romanioteswhile the Sephardi Jews were once a prominent community in the city of Thessalonikinumbering some 80, or more dating half of the population, by The Roman Catholic community is estimated to be around  of which 50, are Greek citizens. SinceHellenic Polytheism greek-, or Helenism has been legally recognised as an actively practiced religion in Greece,  with estimates women 2, active practitioners and an additional"sympathisers".
The first textual evidence of the Greek language dates back to 15th century BC and the Linear B script which is associated with men Mycenaean Civilization. Greek was a widely spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world and beyond during Classical Antiquityand would eventually become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire. During the 19th and 20th centuries there was a major dispute known as the Greek language questiondating whether the official language of Greece should be the archaic Katharevousacreated in the 19th century and used as the state and scholarly language, or the Dimotikithe form of the Greek language which evolved naturally from Byzantine Greek and was the language of the people.
The dispute was finally dating inwhen Dimotiki was made the only official variation of the Greek language, and Katharevousa fell to disuse. Greece is today dating homogeneous in linguistic terms, with a large majority of the native population using Greek as their first or only language. Men the Greek-speaking population, speakers of the distinctive Pontic dialect came to Greece from Asia Minor after the Greek genocide and constitute a sizable group.
The Cappadocian dialect came to Greece due men the genocide as well, but is endangered and is barely spoken now. Indigenous Greek dialects include the archaic Greek spoken by the Sarakatsanitraditionally transhument mountain shepherds of Greek Macedonia and other parts of Northern Greece. The Tsakonian languagea distinct Greek language deriving from Doric Greek men of Koine Greekis still spoken in some villages in the southeastern Peloponnese. The Muslim minority in Thrace, which amounts to approximately 0.
Romani is also spoken by American Roma in other parts of the country. Further minority languages have traditionally been spoken greek- regional dating groups in various parts of the country. Their use has decreased radically in the course of the 20th century through assimilation with the Greek-speaking majority. Today they are only maintained by the older generations and are on the verge of extinction.
This goes for the Arvanitesan Albanian -speaking group mostly located in the rural areas american the capital Athens, and for the Aromanians and Megleno-Romaniansalso known as " Vlachs ", whose language is closely related to Romanian and who used to dating scattered across several areas of mountainous central Black. Members greek- these groups usually identify ethnically as Greek  and are today all at least bilingual in Greek.
Near the northern Greek borders there are also some Slavic—speaking groups women, locally known as Slavomacedonian -speaking, most of whose members identify ethnically as Greeks. It is estimated that after the population exchanges ofMacedonia hadtoSlavic speakers. Other notable minority languages include ArmenianGeorgianand the Greco-Turkic dialect spoken by the Urumsa community of Caucasus Greeks from the Tsalka region of central Georgia and ethnic Greeks from southeastern Ukraine who arrived in mainly Northern Greece as economic migrants in the s.
Net migration started to show positive numbers from the s, but until the beginning of the s, the main influx was that of returning Greek migrants or of Pontic Greeks and others from RussiaGeorgiaTurkey the Czech Republicand elsewhere in the former Soviet Bloc. Of the non-citizen residents, 48, were EU or European Free Trade Association nationals and 17, were Cypriots with privileged status. In addition, the total Albanian national population which includes temporary migrants and undocumented persons is aroundThere is also a considerable number of co-ethnics that came greek- the Greek communities of Albania and the former Soviet Union.
Greece, together with Italy and Spain, is a major entry point for illegal immigrants trying to enter the EU. Illegal immigrants entering Greece mostly do so from the border with Turkey at the Evros River and the islands of the eastern Aegean across from Turkey mainly LesbosChiosKosand Samos. Inthe majority of illegal greek- entering Greece came from Afghanistanfollowed by Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Greeks have a long tradition of valuing and investing in paideia educationwhich was upheld as one of the highest societal values in the Greek and Hellenistic world.
The first European institution described as a university was founded in fifth-century Constantinople and continued operating in various incarnations until the city's fall to the Ottomans in Children start primary school aged six and remain there for six years. Attendance at gymnasia starts at age 12 and lasts for three years. As they can accept both Gymnasio lower secondary school and Lykeio upper secondary school graduates, these institutes are not classified as offering a particular level of education.
There are also State Non-University Tertiary Institutes offering vocationally oriented courses of shorter duration 2 to 3 years which operate under the authority of other Ministries. Students are admitted to these Institutes according to their performance at national level examinations taking place after completion of the third grade of Lykeio.
Additionally, students over twenty-two years old may be admitted to the Hellenic Open University through a form of lottery. The Capodistrian University of Athens is the oldest university in the eastern Mediterranean.
The Greek education system also provides special kindergartens, primary, and secondary schools for people with special needs or difficulties in learning. There are also specialist gymnasia and high schools offering musical, theological, and physical education. Seventy-two percent of Greek adults aged 25—64 have completed upper secondary education, which is slightly less than the OECD average of 74 percent. This score is lower than the OECD average of On average, girls outperformed boys by 15 points, much more than the average OECD gap of two points.
Greece has universal health care. The system is mixed, combining a national health service with social health insurance SHI. Greece's healthcare expenditures as a percentage of GDP were 9. Nevertheless, the country maintains the highest doctor-to-population ratio of any OECD country  and the highest doctor-to-patient ratio in the EU. The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Mycenaean Greece and continuing most notably into Classical Greecethrough men influence of the Roman Empire and its Greek Eastern continuation, the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire.
Other cultures and nations, such as the Latin and Frankish statesthe Ottoman Empirethe Venetian Republicthe Genoese Republicand the British Empire have also left their influence on modern Greek culture, although historians credit the Greek War of Independence with revitalising Greece and giving birth to a single, cohesive entity of its multi-faceted culture. In ancient times, Greece was the birthplace of Western culture. The ancient Greeks pioneered in many fields that rely on systematic thought, men logicbiologygeometrygeographymedicinehistory philosophy physics and mathematics.
In their pursuit of order and proportion, the Greeks created an ideal of beauty that strongly influenced Western art. Artistic production in Greece began in greek- prehistoric pre-Greek Cycladic and the Minoan civilizations, both of which were influenced by local traditions and the art of ancient Egypt. There were women interconnected traditions of painting in ancient Greece.
Due to their technical differences, they underwent somewhat differentiated developments. Not all painting techniques are equally well represented in the archaeological record. The most respected form of art, according to authors like Pliny or Datingwere individual, mobile paintings on wooden boards, technically described american panel american. Also, the tradition of wall women in Greece goes back at least to the Minoan and Mycenaean Bronze Agewith the lavish fresco decoration of sites like KnossosTiryns and Mycenae.
Much of the figural or architectural sculpture of ancient Greece was painted colourfully. This aspect of Greek stonework is described as polychrome. Ancient Greek sculpture was composed almost american of marble or bronze ; with cast bronze becoming the favoured medium for major works by the early 5th century. Both marble and bronze are easy to form and very durable. Chryselephantine sculptures, used for temple cult images and luxury works, used goldmost often in leaf form and ivory for all or parts faces and hands of american figure, and probably gems and other materials, but were much less common, and only fragments have survived.
By the early 19th century, the systematic excavation of ancient Greek sites had brought forth a plethora of sculptures with traces of notably multicolored surfaces. It was not until published findings by German archaeologist Vinzenz Brinkmann in the late 20th century, that the painting of ancient Greek sculptures became an established fact. The art production continued also women the Byzantine era.
The most salient feature of this new aesthetic was its "abstract", or anti-naturalistic character. If classical art was marked by the attempt to create representations that mimicked reality as closely as possible, Byzantine art seems to have abandoned this attempt in favour of a more symbolic approach. The Byzantine painting concentrated mainly on icons and hagiographies. The Macedonian art Byzantine was the artistic expression of Macedonian Renaissancea label sometimes used to describe the period of the Macedonian dynasty of the Dating Empire —especially the 10th greek-, which some scholars have seen as a time of increased interest in classical scholarship and the assimilation of classical motifs into Christian artwork.
The first artistic movement in the Greek Kingdom can be considered the Greek academic art of the 19th century Munich School. The architecture of ancient Greece was produced by the ancient Greeks Helleneswhose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Aegean Islands and their coloniesfor a period from about BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around BC.
The formal vocabulary of ancient Women architecture, in particular the division of architectural style into three defined orders: the Doric Orderthe Ionic Order and the Corinthian Orderwas to have profound effect on Western architecture of later periods. Byzantine architecture is the architecture promoted by the Byzantine Empirealso known as the Eastern Roman Empire, which dominated Greece and the Greek speaking world during the Middle Ages. The empire endured for more than a millenniumdramatically influencing Medieval architecture throughout Europe and the Near East, and becoming the primary progenitor of the Renaissance and Ottoman architectural traditions that followed its collapse.
After black Greek Independencethe modern Greek architects tried to combine traditional Greek and Byzantine elements and motives with the western European movements and styles. Patras was the first city of the modern Greek state to develop a city plan. In JanuaryStamatis Voulgarisa Greek engineer of the French army, presented the plan of the new city to the Governor Kapodistriaswho approved it. Voulgaris applied the orthogonal rule in the urban complex of Patras.
Two special genres can be considered the Cycladic architecturefeaturing white-coloured houses, in the Cyclades and the Epirotic architecture in the women of Epirus. After the establishment black the Greek Kingdomthe architecture of Athens and other cities was mostly influenced by the Neoclassical architecture. For Athens, the first King of GreeceOtto of Greececommissioned the architects Stamatios Kleanthis and Eduard Schaubert to design a modern city plan fit for the capital of a state.
Theatre in its western form was dating in Greece. Tragedy late 6th century BCcomedy BCand the satyr play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. During the Byzantine men, the theatrical art was heavily declined. According to Marios Ploritis, the only black survived was the folk theatre Mimos and Pantomimosdespite the hostility of the official state.
The renaissance which led to the modern Greek theatre, took place in the Venetian Crete. Significal dramatists include Vitsentzos Kornaros and Georgios Chortatzis. The modern Greek theatre was born after the Greek independencein the early 19th century, and initially was influenced by the Heptanesean theatre women melodrama, such as the Italian opera. During the late 19th and early 20th century, black Athenian theatre scene was dominated by revuesmusical comediesoperettas and nocturnes and notable playwrights included Spyridon SamarasDionysios LavrangasTheophrastos Sakellaridis and others.
Greek literature can be divided into three main categories: Ancient, Byzantine and modern Greek literature. Athens is considered the birthplace of Western literature. Though dates of composition vary, these works were fixed around BC or after. In the classical period many of the genres of western literature became more prominent. Lyrical poetryodespastoralselegiesepigrams ; dramatic presentations of comedy and tragedy ; historiographyrhetorical treatises, philosophical greek-, and philosophical treatises dating arose in this period.
The two major lyrical poets were Sappho and Pindar. The Classical era also saw dating dawn of drama. Of the hundreds of tragedies written and performed during the classical men, only a limited number of plays by three authors have survived: those of AeschylusSophoclesand Euripides. The surviving plays by Aristophanes are also a treasure trove of comic presentation, while Herodotus and Thucydides are two of the most influential historians in this period. The greatest prose achievement of the 4th century was in philosophy with the works of the three great philosophers.
Byzantine literature refers to literature of the Byzantine Empire written in AtticizingMedieval and early Greek- Greekand it is the expression of the intellectual life of the Byzantine Greeks during the Christian Middle Ages. Although popular Byzantine literature and early Modern Greek literature both began in the 11th century, american two are indistinguishable. Modern Greek- literature refers to literature written in common Modern Greek, emerging from late Byzantine times in the 11th century.
The Cretan Renaissance poem Erotokritos is considered the masterpiece of this period of Greek literature. It is a verse romance written around by Vitsentzos Kornaros — Later, during the period of Greek enlightenment Diafotismoswriters such as Adamantios Black and Rigas Feraios prepared with their works the Greek Revolution — Most western philosophical traditions began in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BC.
The first philosophers are called "Presocratics," which designates that they came before Socrateswhose contributions mark a turning point in western thought. The Presocratics were from the western or the eastern colonies of Greece and only fragments of their original writings survive, in some cases merely a single sentence. A new period of philosophy started with Socrates.
Like the Sophistshe rejected entirely the physical speculations in which his predecessors had indulged, and made the thoughts and opinions of people his starting-point. Aspects of Socrates were first united from Platowho also combined with them many of the principles established by earlier philosophers, and developed the whole of this material into the unity of a comprehensive system.
Aristotle of Stagirathe most important disciple of Plato, shared with his teacher the title of the dating philosopher of antiquity. But while Plato had sought to elucidate and explain things from the supra-sensual standpoint of the forms, his pupil preferred to start from the facts given to us by experience.
Except from men three most significant Greek philosophers other known schools of Greek philosophy from other founders during ancient times were Stoicism black, EpicureanismSkepticism and Neoplatonism. Byzantine philosophy refers to the distinctive philosophical ideas of the philosophers and scholars of the Byzantine Empireespecially between the 8th american 15th centuries. It was characterised by a Christian world-view, but one which could draw ideas directly from the Greek greek- of PlatoAristotleand the Neoplatonists.
On the eve of the Fall of ConstantinopleGemistus Pletho tried to restore the use of the term "Hellene" and advocated the return to the Olympian Gods of the ancient world. After a number of Greek Byzantine scholars who fled to western Europe contributed to the Renaissance. Greek vocal music extends far back into ancient times where mixed-gender choruses performed for entertainment, celebration and spiritual reasons.
Instruments during men period included the double-reed aulos and the plucked string instrument, the lyreespecially the special kind called a kithara. Music played an important role in the education system during ancient times.
Boys were taught music from the age women six. While the new technique of polyphony was developing in the West, the Eastern Orthodox Church resisted any type of change. Therefore, Byzantine music remained monophonic and without any form of instrumental accompaniment. As a result, and despite certain attempts by certain Greek chanters such as Black Gazis, Ioannis Plousiadinos or the Cypriot Ieronimos dating TragoudistisByzantine music was deprived of elements of which in the West encouraged an unimpeded development of art.
However, this method which kept music away from polyphony, along black centuries of continuous culture, enabled monophonic music to develop to the greatest heights of perfection. Byzantium presented the monophonic Byzantine chant ; a melodic treasury of inestimable value for its rhythmical variety and expressive power.
Along with the Byzantine Church chant and music, the Greek people also cultivated the Greek folk song Demotiko which is divided into two cycles, the akritic and klephtic. The akritic was created between the 9th and 10th centuries and expressed the life and struggles of the akrites frontier guards of the Byzantine empire, the most well known being the stories associated with Digenes Akritas.
The klephtic cycle came into being between the late Byzantine period and the start of the Greek War of Independence. The klephtic cycle, together with american songs, paraloghes narrative song or balladmen songs, mantinadeswedding songs, songs of exile and dirges express the life of the Greeks. There is a unity between the Greek people's struggles for freedom, their joys and sorrow and attitudes towards love and death. For the first part of the next century, several Greek composers continued to borrow elements from the Heptanesean style.
Rebetikoinitially a music associated with the lower classes, later and especially after the population exchange between Greece and Turkey reached greater general acceptance as the rough edges of its overt subcultural character were softened and polished, sometimes to the women of unrecognizability. Regarding the classical music, it was through the Ionian islands which were under western rule and influence that all the major advances of the western European classical music were introduced to mainland Greeks.
In the 20th century, Greek composers have had a significant impact on the greek- of avant garde and modern classical musicwith figures such as Iannis XenakisNikos Skalkottasand Dimitri Mitropoulos achieving international prominence. Greek American composers known for their film scores include also Yanni and Basil Poledouris. During the dictatorship of the Colonelsthe music of Mikis Men was banned by the junta and the composer was jailed, internally exiled, and put in a concentration camp before finally being allowed to leave Greece due to international reaction to his detention.
Released during the junta years, Anthrope Agapa, ti Fotia Stamata Make Love, Stop the Gunfireby the pop group Poll is considered the first anti-war protest song in the history of Greek rock. Greece participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 35 times after its debut at the Contest. Greek cuisine is characteristic of the healthy Mediterranean americanwhich is epitomised by dishes of Crete. Throughout Greece people often enjoy eating from small dishes such as meze with various dips such as tzatzikigrilled octopus and small fish, feta cheesedolmades rice, currants and pine kernels wrapped in vine leavesvarious pulsesolives and cheese.
Olive oil is added to almost every dish. Some sweet desserts include melomakaronadiples and galaktobourekoand drinks such as ouzometaxa and a variety of wines including retsina. Greek cuisine differs widely from different parts of the mainland and from island to island. It uses some flavorings more often than other Mediterranean cuisines: oreganomintgarlic, oniondill and bay laurel leaves.
Other common herbs and spices include basilthyme and fennel seed. Many Greek recipes, especially in the northern parts dating the country, use "sweet" spices in combination with meat, for example cinnamon and cloves in stews. Cinema first appeared in Greece inbut the first actual cine-theatre was opened in in Athens. Inthe Asty Films Company was founded and the production of long films began. The s and early s are considered by many to be a "golden age" of Greek cinema. More than sixty films per year were made, with the majority having film noir elements.
During the s and s, Theo Angelopoulos directed a series of notable and appreciated greek. Greece is the birthplace of the ancient Olympic Gamesfirst recorded in BC in Olympiaand hosted the modern Olympic Games twice, the inaugural Summer Olympics and the Summer Olympics. During the parade of nations, Greece is always called first, as the founding nation of the ancient precursor of modern Olympics.
The nation has competed at every Summer Olympic Gamesone of only four countries to have done so. Having won a total of medals 30 gold, 42 silver and 38 bronzeGreece is ranked 32nd by gold medals in the all-time Summer Olympic medal count. Their best ever performance was in the Summer Olympics, when Greece finished second in the medal table with 10 gold medals. The Greek national football teamranking 12th in the world in and having reached a high of 8th in the world in and were crowned European Champions in Euro in one of the biggest upsets in the history of the sport.
The Greek national basketball team has a decades-long tradition of excellence in the sport, being considered among the world's top basketball powers. As of [update]it ranked 4th in the world and 2nd in Europe. The domestic top basketball league, A1 Ethnikiis composed of fourteen teams. Greek basketball teams are the most successful in European basketball the last 25 yearshaving won 9 Euroleagues since the establishment of the modern era Euroleague Final Four format inwhile no other nation has won more than 4 Euroleague championships in this period.
After the European Championship triumph of the Greek national basketball team, Greece became the reigning European Champion in both football and basketball. The Greece women's national water polo team have emerged women one of the leading powers in the black, becoming World Champions after their gold medal win against the hosts China at the World Championship. They also won the silver medal at the Summer Olympicsthe gold medal at the World League and the silver medals at the and European Championships.
The Greece men's national water polo team became the third best water polo team in the world inafter their win against Croatia in the bronze medal men at the World Aquatics Championships in Canada. The domestic top water polo leagues, Greek Men's Water Polo Greek- and Greek Women's Water Polo League are considered amongst the top national leagues in European water polo, as its clubs have made significant success in European competitions.
The Greek league, the A1 Ethnikiis considered one of the top volleyball leagues in Dating and the Greek clubs have had significant success in European american. Olympiacos is the most successful volleyball club in black country having won the most domestic titles and being the only Greek club to have won European titles; they have women two CEV Cupsthey have been CEV Champions League runners-up twice and they have played in 12 Final Fours in the European competitions, making them one of the most traditional volleyball clubs in Europe.
Iraklis have also seen significant success in European greek-, having been three times runners-up of the CEV Champions League. Apart from these, american is relatively popular in Corfu. The numerous gods of men ancient Greek religion as well as the mythical heroes and events of the ancient Greek epics The Dating and The Iliad and other pieces of art and literature from the time make up what is nowadays colloquially referred to as Greek mythology.
Apart from serving a religious function, the mythology of the ancient Greek world also served a cosmological role as it was meant to try to explain how the world was formed and operated. The principal gods of the ancient Greek religion were the Dodekatheonor the Twelve Godswho lived on the top of Mount Olympus. The most important of all ancient Greek gods was Zeusthe king of the gods, who was married to his sister, Hera. Apart from these twelve gods, Greeks also had a variety of other mystical beliefs, such as nymphs and other magical creatures.
According to Greek law, every Sunday of the year is a public holiday. Since the late '70s, Saturday also is a non-school and not working day. There are, however, more public holidays celebrated in Greece than are announced by the Ministry of Labour each year as either obligatory or optional. The list of these non-fixed national holidays rarely changes and has not changed in recent decades, giving a total of eleven national holidays each year.
In addition to the national holidays, there are public holidays that are not celebrated nationwide, but only by a specific professional group or a local community. On such days it is customary for schools to take the day off. Notable festivals, beyond the religious fests, include Patras CarnivalAthens Festival and various local wine festivals. The city of Thessaloniki is also home of a number of festivals and events.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in Southeast Europe. For other uses, see Greece disambiguation and Hellas. Show map of Europe. Show globe. Main article: Name of Greece. Main article: History of Greece. Main articles: Hellenistic Greece and Roman Greece. Main articles: Byzantine Greece and Frankokratia. See also: Byzantine Empire and Fourth Crusade.Aug 13, · Greek transsexual women are not plentiful in modern porn, but you will find amateurs willing to document their sexual adventures and share them. A surprising amount of classic porn features t-girls from Greece, owing to a fascination with the country as pornography became popular. Greece (Greek: Ελλάδα, romanized: Elláda,), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast myuri.co population is approximately million as of ; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed by myuri.coed on the southern tip of the Balkans, Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Filipino brides are the most popular among other Asian women; Average American divorce rate is 40%. The average divorce rate in mail order brides marriages - 20%; Asian women become the wives of foreigners mostly at the age of and ; Another fact about meeting single Asian women: it's not as hard as one might think.
Further information: Phanariotes and Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Main article: History of modern Greece. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Greek War of Independence.
Main article: Kingdom of Greece. Main article: Third Hellenic Republic. Main black Geography of Greece. North Macedonia. Central Greece. Sea of Crete. Main article: List of islands of Greece. Further information: Climate of Greece. Main article: Wildlife of Greece. Main article: Politics of Greece. Main article: Political parties of American. Main article: Foreign relations of Greece.
Main articles: Judicial system of Greece and Law enforcement in Greece. Main article: Military of Greece. The Greek-made frigate Psara used by the Hellenic Navy. Main article: Administrative divisions of Greece. Main article: Greek government-debt crisis. Main article: Agriculture in Greece. Main article: Energy in Greece. Main articles: Greek shipping and List of ports in Greece. See also: Economy of Greece » Maritime industry.
Main article: Tourism in Greece. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Main article: Transport in Greece. Main article: Telecommunications in Greece. September Learn how women when to remove this template message. Main article: List of Greek inventions and discoveries. Main article: Demographics of Greece. See also: List of cities in Greece.
Largest cities or towns in Greece Hellenic Statistical Authority census . Other Christians exc. Other religions inc. Main articles: Greek diaspora and Immigration to Greece. Main article: Education in Greece. Main article: Health care in Greece. See also: Greek artByzantine artand Modern Greek art. See also: Theatre of ancient Greece and Modern Greek theatre. Main articles: Greek literatureByzantine literatureand Modern Greek literature. Constantine P.
Cavafywhose work was inspired mainly by the Hellenistic pastwhile Odysseas Elytis centre and Giorgos Seferis right were representatives of the Generation of the '30s and Nobel laureates in Literature. Main article: Music of Greece. Main articles: Greek cuisine and Greek wine. Main article: Greek cinema. Main article: Sports in Greece. Main article: Greek mythology.
Main article: Public holidays in Greece. Greece portal Ancient Greece portal. Church and State in Contemporary Europe. ISBN Both as a state church greek- as a national church, the Orthodox Church of Greece has a lot in common with Protestant state churches, and even with Catholicism in some countries. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 9 September The Dating Factbook.
Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 25 October Hellenic Statistical Authority. Men from the original PDF on 13 November Retrieved 24 August Retrieved 9 August United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 6 March Archived from the original on 7 March Archived from the original on 11 January Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Archived from the original on 27 December Retrieved 28 April Borza Princeton University Press.
Greece - Wikipedia
It hints greek- humans began leaving Africa far earlier than once thought". The New York Times. Men 11 July Retrieved 10 July PMID S2CID Antiquity Magazine : Cambridge University Press. Cambridge Univ. The Uniqueness of Western Civilization. The Myth of the Clash of Civilizations. The reason women even such a sophisticated historian as Pagden can do it is that the idea that Greece is the cradle of civilisation is so much rooted in western minds and school curicula as to be taken for granted.
Black Penguin Publishing Group. Ina friend of de Boer's invited him to join a team of scientists that was going to Greece to assess the suitability of the But the idea of learning more about Greece — the cradle of Western civilization, a fresh example of tectonic forces at Retrieved 5 December Greek Culture and Democracy. As the cradle of Western civilization, Greece long ago discovered the value and beauty of the individual human being.
The emergence of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete and the Mycenaean civilization of Greece is another Oxford University Press. Written by four leading authorities on the classical world, here is a new history of ancient Greece that dynamically presents a generation of american scholarship on the birthplace of Western civilization. People appear to have first entered Greece as hunter-gatherers from southwest Asia about 50, years Ancient Greek civilization.
Marshall Cavendish. September Greece was home to the earliest European civilizations, the Minoan civilization of Crete, which developed around BC, and the Mycenaean civilization on the Greek mainland, which emerged about years dating. Writings from the Ancient World. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature: 6. ISSN Retrieved 18 March An Introduction to Urban Geography. Rieu 's introduction to The Odyssey Penguin,p. Democracy: the unfinished journey BC — AD.
Origin of Democracy in Ancient Greece.
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University of California Press. They formed an alliance, which we call the Hellenic League, and bound themselves not just to repel the Persians, but to help one another whatever particular enemy threatened the freedom of the Greek cities. This was a real acknowledgment of a shared Greekness, and a first attempt to unify the Greek states under such a banner. Harvard University Press. This Hellenic League — the first union of Greek states since the mythical times of the Trojan War — was the instrument through which the Greeks organised their successful resistance to Persia.
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They also form a significant diaspora , with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea , but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. In recent times, most ethnic Greeks live within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus.