Is pecking order a dating site
It consisted of 18 episodes. The Real Housewives of New York was a continued successes for the network with season three averaging 2. Duel" served as the season finale, and was aired on July 21, Six of the seven wives asian dating delete account in the third season returned for the fourth instalment. Frankel had expressed desires of departing the series prior to its conclusion due to not wanting to film two shows at once. It took all the joy out of it. Season four saw the introduction of a new wife, Cindy Barshop, to fill Frankel's place.
TV Guide. Zap 2 It. Retrieved September 1, April 7, July 21, July 25, August 1, Retrieved August 30, site CBS News. Us Weekly. Retrieved December 8, The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 4, Perez Hilton. Reality Tea. No airtime! The forgotten NYC housewife". Pop Crunch. New York Post. April 14, April 28, May 5, May 12, June 2, June 9, June 16, June 30, July 7, April 21, July pecking, May 19, May 26, June 23, TV by the Numbers.
Archived from the original on April 11, Retrieved April 18, dating Archived from the original on April 17, Archived from the original on April 26, April 29, site Archived from the original on May 2, Archived from the original on May 9, Archived from the original on May 19, Archived from the original on May 24, Archived from the original on May 30, Archived from the original on June 6, Archived from order original on June 13, Archived from the original on June 20, Archived from the original on June 27, Archived from the original on July 3, Archived from the original on October 19, Archived from the original on July 18, Though she spurns him when he reveals that he and Mercer left a motel in Tijuana in flames without dating people to escape, she realizes her feelings for him when he comes to her aid after pecking is drugged and attacked by the Hearst rapist.
Unable to deal with Veronica being in constant danger, Logan tries to convince her to drop her investigation into the rapes and even has a bodyguard tail order without her knowledge, infuriating Veronica when she finds out. Though they fight out their problems and both admit that they love one another, Logan breaks up with Veronica in the ninth episode. He tells her he will always be there for her.
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Veronica is deeply upset and breaks down when she gets home. Although Dating tries to help Veronica find site who the rapist is, he is still elsewhere when she is attacked by Mercer and Moe. When he learns that Mercer was the one who attacked Veronica, he purposely gets himself arrested so he can be in the same cell as him — for revenge. They spent the next six weeks apart. During the break-up, Dick tried to help Logan move on by bringing him to the beach, later meeting up with a group of girls.
Later, Veronica showed up at Order place pecking they shared a passionate kiss, realizing that they had missed each other, and became a couple again. In the next episode, Logan told Veronica that he had hooked up with someone else who "meant less than nothing to him" over their 6-week break, but didn't elaborate on who it was. It turns out that Logan had slept with Madison Sinclair in Aspen, which Veronica considered one of the worst insults though Logan didn't know this.
This time, order jealousy and an unwillingness to forgive and forget ends their relationship. Veronica vows never to speak to Logan again after he violently beats up Piz, believing Piz emailed a racy video of himself and Veronica all over Hearst. However, the series ended with Logan and Veronica sharing one last ambiguous look, leaving their relationship unresolved. Although they haven't seen each other in nine years, dating characters reconnect in the Veronica Mars peckingin which Veronica helps Logan who is site of murder.
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They continue their relationship and Logan vows to return to Veronica after his Navy deployment. This relationship is continued into the fourth season which has a side plot revolving around Logan's marriage proposal to Veronica, her rejection then acceptance of it, and finally their wedding. As the series' final twist the Neptune Bomber's last explosion is a bomb left in their car which kills Logan, just before they are heading off on their honeymoon.
Veronica met Piz on her first day at Hearst College when Wallace who is Piz's roommate requested her help to find Piz's missing things in ' Welcome Wagon. Although she ignored his romantic feelings, a steady friendship developed between them. Veronica shared her thoughts with him about her problems with Logan, and after Piz unknowingly gave her the advice she needed, Veronica and Logan reunited much to Piz's internal disappointment. Piz and Veronica seem quite happy together, and stand by each other when a racy video of them is emailed around Hearst.
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When Logan attacks Piz after jumping to the conclusion that Piz made the video, Veronica vows never to speak to him again, and Logan's new girlfriend, Parker, breaks up with him because she realizes that he still has feelings for Veronica. After finding out who sent the video, Piz and Veronica are eating lunch when the culprit walks in. Veronica threatens him but he is unapologetic, taunting her about what he can do. Piz holds Pecking back, advising her to drop it and walk away.
She reluctantly obeys. The next day Veronica is approached by the student who bugged Piz's dorm room. He is very insulting to Veronica, who ignores it and warns Logan that the boy is connected to the Mafia. Logan remarks that he wondered why Veronica was so forgiving and then beats the culprit up with much passion as he does not have anything left to lose. When the student, lying on the floor, threatens "whoever you are, you're pecking to die," Logan answers flippantly "yeah, someday," then shares a look with Veronica who gives a hint of a smile.
Logan then apologizes to Piz for attacking him, as Veronica earlier advised him to do, and leaves the scene without turning back, with Veronica still staring at site. Piz's eyes go from Veronica to Logan, and to Veronica again. Sighing, he expresses a look of realization that he may never have the connection with Veronica that Logan has as she guiltily looks down.
In the Veronica Mars filmit is revealed that Piz and Veronica broke up after she transferred to Stanford after her freshman year, but they reconnect when she moves to New York for law school. They are dating at the beginning of the film, but he breaks up with her when her hesitancy to leave Order and Logan and return to New York make him doubt her feelings for him.
Many have remarked that Bell's performance in the series was overlooked and deserved an Emmy nomination and win. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fictional character. This article has multiple issues. Please help to improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This television-related article describes a work dating element of site in a primarily in-universe style. Please help rewrite it to explain the fiction more clearly and provide non-fictional perspective.
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Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Kristen Bell as Veronica Mars. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. September AOL TV. November 18, Retrieved February 3, The latter is an approach involving constrained canonical quantization, albeit of a version of general relativity based on a different choice of variables than the usual geometrodynamical, metric-based variables.
We cover the basic details of each of these in the following subsections. However, it turned out that the theory is not perturbatively renormalizable, meaning that there are ineliminable infinities. The original and still prominent idea behind string theory was to replace the point particles of ordinary quantum field theory particles like photons, electrons, etc with one-dimensional extended objects called strings. See Weingard, and Witten, for overviews of the conceptual framework. String theories containing fermions as well as bosons must be formulated in nine space dimensions and one time dimension.
Strings dating be open or closed, and have a characteristic tension and hence vibrational spectrum.
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The various modes of pecking correspond to various particles, one of which is the graviton the hypothetical massless, spin-2 particle responsible for mediating gravitational interactions. The resulting theories have the advantage of being perturbatively renormalizable. This means that perturbative calculations are at least mathematically tractable. Since perturbation theory is an almost indispensable tool for physicists, this is deemed a good thing.
The rationale, according to one kind of duality S-dualityis that one theory at strong coupling high energy description is physically equivalent site terms of physical symmetries, correlation functions and all observable content to another theory at weak coupling where a lower energy means a more tractable descriptionand that if all the theories are related to one another by dualities such as this, then they must all be aspects of some more fundamental theory.
Though attempts have been made, there has been no successful formulation of this theory: dating very existence, much less its nature, is still largely a matter of conjecture. The link comes about because in a dual pair of theories one has a observable equivalence combined with what appears to be radical physical and mathematical differences.
These differences can order as extreme as describing spacetimes of apparently different topological structures, including different numbers of dimensions.
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This has led some physicists to speak of spacetime emergingdepending on such things as the coupling strength governing physical interactions. Since there is an equivalence between these descriptions, it makes sense to say that neither is fundamental, and so elements of the spacetimes they apparently describe are also not fundamental; thus implying that the spacetime we observe at low-energies is an emergent phenomenon — Vistarini is a recent discussion of spacetime emergence in string theory.
One way to view such dual pairs is in terms of the two theories the gauge theory and a gravitational theory being distinct classical limits of a more all-encompassing quantum theory. In this case, the classical emergent structures also include the specific gauge symmetries and degrees of freedom of the limiting theories.
A problem remains of making sense of site more fundamental theory and the associated physical structure it describes from which these spacetimes and gauge symmetries emerge. However, if we view the theories as notational variants, then our sense of theory-individuation is seemingly compromised, since the pecking pairs involve different dynamics and degrees of freedom. See Joseph Polchinskifor a thorough account of the various kinds of dualities along with some of their interpretive quirks; Rickles dating a philosophical examination of string dualities.
However, spacetime itself is split apart into a pecking of three dimensional slices a foliation on which is defined a spatial geometry. In a canonical description, one chooses a particular set of configuration variables x i and canonically conjugate momentum order p i which describe the state of a system at some time, and can be encoded in a site space. Then, one obtains the time-evolution of these variables from the Hamiltonian H x ip iwhich provides the physically possible motions in the phase space a a family of curves.
The Hamiltonian operator, acting on quantum states, would then generate the dynamical evolution. When one attempts to write general relativity down in this way, one has to contend with the existence of constraints on the canonical variables that are inherited from the diffeomorphism invariance of the spacetime formulation of the theory. The single tensorial equation that we see in standard presentations of the Einstein field equations is translated into 10 scalar equations in the dating formulation, with constraints accounting order four of these equations the remaining six are genuine evolutionary equations.
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Three of the constraints known as the momentum or diffeomorphism dating are responsible for shifting data tangential to the initial surface and, thus, are related to the shift vector field. The remaining constraint, known as the Hamiltonian or scalar constraint, is responsible for pushing data off the initial surface, and thus is related to the lapse function. If the constraints are not satisfied by the canonical initial data then the development of the data with respect to the evolution equations, will not generate a physically possible spacetime for choices of lapse and shift.
However, when the constraints are satisfied then the various choices of lapse and shift will order grow the same 4D spacetime that it, the same spacetime metric. However, to extract a notion of time from site formulation demands that one first solve for the spacetime metric, followed by a singling out of a specific solution.
This is a dating of classical problem of time in that since the spacetime site is a dynamical variable, time is something that also must be solved for. Further, there pecking arbitrariness in the time variable as a result of the arbitrariness encoded in the constraints, stemming from the fact that time is essentially a freely chosen label of the three dimensional slices and so is not a physical parameter.
Below we see that things become more problematic in the shift to quantum theory. Although advocates of the order approach often accuse string theorists of relying too heavily on classical background spacetime, the canonical approach does something which is arguably quite similar, in that one begins with a theory that pecking time-evolution in terms of evolving some data specified on an a priori given spacelike surface, and then quantizing the theory.
However, this does not imply any breaking of spacetime diffeomorphism invariance or general covariance since the constraints that must be satisfied by the data on the slice mean that the physical observables of the theory will be independent of whatever foliation one chooses. However, the problem is that if spacetime is quantized along these lines, the assumption of evolving then quantizing does not make sense in anything but an approximate way.
That is, the evolution does not generate a classical spacetime! This issue in particular is decidedly neglected in both the physical and philosophical literature but see Isham,and there is more that might be said.
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We return to the issue of time in quantum gravity below. As mentioned above, in these geometric variables, as in any other canonical formulation of general relativity, one is faced with constraints, which encode the fact that the canonical variables cannot be specified independently. Specifying two components of the electric field at every point dictates the third component. Thus, dating all components of the Maxwell equations propagate the fields in a physical sense.
In the classical unquantized order formulation of general relativity, the constraints do not pose any particular conceptual problems though one does face a problem in defining suitable observables that commute with the constraints, and this certainly has a conceptual flavour. Effectively, different choices of these functions give rise to different site of background against which to evolve the foreground.
However, the constraints pose a serious problem as much conceptual as technical when one moves to quantum theory. The difficulties presented by this latter constraint constitute the problem of time. Attempts to quantize general relativity in the canonical framework proceed by turning the canonical variables into operators on an appropriate state space e. When quantizing a theory with constraints, there are two possible approaches. The approach usually adopted in gauge theories is to deal with the constraints before quantization, so that only true degrees of pecking are promoted to operators when passing to the quantum theory.
This is difficult already at the classical level, since the utility and, moreover, the very tractability of any particular gauge generally depends on the properties of the solution to the equations, which of course is what one is trying to find in the first place. But in the quantum theory, one is faced with the additional concern that the resulting theory may well not be independent of the choice of gauge. This is closely related to the problem of identifying true, gauge-invariant observables in the classical theory Torrein the Other Internet Resources section.
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The preferred approach in canonical quantum gravity is site impose the constraints after quantizing. The problem of time is associated with the super-Hamiltonian constraint, as mentioned above. Trying to understand how, and in what sense, the quantum theory describes the time-evolution of something, be it states or observables, is the essence of the problem of time pecking which, more below. In geometrodynamics, all of the constraint equations are difficult to solve though the super-Hamiltonian constraint, order as the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, is especially difficulteven in the absence of particular boundary conditions.
Lacking solutions, one does not have a grip on what the true, physical states of the theory are, and one cannot hope to make much progress in the way of predictions. The difficulties associated with geometric variables are addressed by the program initiated by Ashtekar and developed by his collaborators for a review and further references see Rovelli b Other Internet Resourcesa.
This change of variables introduces an additional constraint into the theory the Gauss law constraint generating SO 3 site on account of the freedom to rotate the vectors without disturbing the metric. The program underwent further refinements with dating introduction of the loop transform, and further refinements pecking when it was understood that equivalence classes of loops could be identified dating spin networks. One is able to recover all the order geometrical features of general relativity from this formulation.
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See Smolinfor a popular introduction; Rovelli,offers a physically intuitive account; Site,provides the mathematical underpinnings; Rickles,offers a philosophically-oriented review. Note that the problems of time and observables afflict the loop approach just as they did the earlier geometrodynamical approach.
The difference is that one has more mathematical control over the theory and its quantizationin terms of a definable inner product, a separable state space, site more. There is still a question mark over the construction of the full physical Hilbert space, since the solution of the Hamiltonian constraint remains a problem. However, some progress is being made in various directions, e.
Some e. Mattingly have argued that dating gravity, a theory in which matter is quantized but spacetime is classical, is at least coherent, though not quite an empirically viable option we discuss this below. Also of interest are arguments to the site that gravity itself may play a role in quantum state reduction Christian, ; Penrose, ; also briefly discussed below. A fairly comprehensive overview of the current approaches to quantum gravity can be found in Oriti In this entry we have chosen to focus upon those approaches that are both the most actively pursued and that have received most attention from philosophers.
Let us now turn to several methodological and philosophical issues that arise quantum gravity research. Research in quantum gravity has always had a order peculiar flavor, owing to both the technical and conceptual difficulty of the field and the remoteness from experiment. Thus conventional notions of the close relationship between theory and experiment have but a tenuous foothold, at best, in quantum gravity. Investigating these methods and constraints constitutes an open research problem for philosophers of science—for initial investigations along these lines, see James Mattingly a and and Rickles Given, as he admits, both general relativity and quantum theory claim to be universal theories, any conceptual or formal tension that can be found to hold between them must point to either or both theories being in error in their claims to universality—this is an empirical claim of sorts.
In the context of string theory, Peter Galison argues that mathematical constraints take the place site standard empirical constraints. James Cushing also considers some of the dating methodological implications of string theory though he deals with string site in its earliest days, when it underwent a transition from the dual resonance model of hadrons into a theory of quantum gravity. As remarked in the introduction, there is no single, generally agreed-upon body of theory in quantum gravity.
The majority of the physicists working in the field focus their attention on string theory, an ambitious program which aims at providing a unified theory of all four interactions. A non-negligible minority work on what is now called loop quantum gravity, the goal of which is simply to provide a quantum theory of the gravitational interaction simpliciter.
The first reason is that it is extremely difficult to make any concrete predictions in these theories. String theory, in particular, is plagued by a lack of experimentally testable predictions because of the tremendous number of distinct ground or vacuum states in the theory, with an absence of guiding principles for singling out the physically significant ones including our own.
Though the string community prides itself on the dearth of free parameters in the theory in contrast to the nineteen or so free parameters found in the standard model of particle physicsthe problem arguably resurfaces in the huge number of vacua associated with different compactifications of the nine space dimensions to the three we observe. These vacua are either viewed as distinct string theories, or else as solutions of one and the same theory though some deeper, unknown theory, as mentioned above.
Loop quantum gravity is seemingly less plagued by a lack of predictions, and indeed it is often claimed that the discreteness of area and volume operators are concrete predictions of the theory, with potentially testable consequences. Proponents of this approach argue that this makes the theory more susceptible pecking falsification, and thus more scientific pecking the sense of Popper; see the entry on Karl Popper than string theory see Smolin for this line of argument.
However, it is still quite unclear, in practice and even in principle, how one might pecking observe these quantities. There have been recent suggestions that in order to probe the effects of the Planck scale discreteness, or minimal length in particular one needs to look to the cosmological level for tiny violations of Lorentz invariance.
Rovelli and Speziale have argued that, in fact, the existence of a minimal pecking does not imply a violation of the Lorentz symmetry a conclusion seconded by the proponents of the causal set programme. Their argument turns on the fact that in the context of quantum theory, symmetries act on states and so on mean values rather than eigenvalues representing the discrete quantities in the theory.
However, in any case, there remains a question mark over the theoretical status of the discreteness result which has been shown to hold only for operators on the kinematical Hilbert space, that is, for gauge-variant quantities. It is still an open question whether this order transfers to genuine observables i. See Dittrich and Thiemann for a detailed investigation of the problem and a possible resolution employing suitably gauge-fixed by matter Dirac observables. Even if one overcomes this problem, and could observe evidence of the discreteness of space, so many approaches involve such discreteness that dating would face a further problem in using this new data to decide between the discrete approaches.
For a site discussion of this and related issues including the question of whether the proposed discreteness breaks Lorentz invariancesee Hagar — Hagar considers these and related issues in a book-length treatment. The second reason for the absence order consensus is that there are no experiments in quantum gravity, and little in the way of observations that pecking qualify as direct or indirect data or empirical evidence.
This stems in part from the lack of theoretical predictionssince it is difficult to design an observational test of a theory if one does not know where to look or what to look at. But it also stems from the fact that most theories of quantum gravity appear to predict departures from classical relativity only at energy scales on the order of 10 19 GeV. By way of comparison, the proton-proton collisions at Fermilab have an energy on the order of 10 3 GeV. Whereas research in particle physics proceeds in order part by examining the data collected in large particle dating, which are able to smash particles together at sufficiently high energies to probe the properties of atomic nuclei in the fallout, gravity is so weak that there is no physically realistic way to do a comparable experiment that would reveal properties at the energy scales at which quantum gravitational effects are expected to be important—it would take a particle accelerator of galactic size to even approach the required energies.
In a little more detail, the weakness of gravity can be compared to the strength of the electromagnetic interaction — cf. Callender and Huggett eds. Feynmanp. Though progress is being made in trying to at least draw observational consequences of dating quantum gravity, a theory of quantum gravity which arguably does make predictions Amelino-Camelia,in the Other Internet Resources section below; D. Associated with this temperature is an entropy see the entry on the philosophy of statistical mechanicsand one would expect a theory of quantum gravity to allow one to calculate the entropy associated with a black hole of given mass, angular momentum, and charge, the entropy corresponding to the number of quantum micro- states of the gravitational pecking having the same mass, charge, and angular momentum.
See Unruh,and references therein. String theory gets the number right for a not-particularly-physically-realistic subset of black holes called near-extremal order holes, while loop quantum gravity gets it right for generic black holes, but only up to an overall constant. More recently, the causal set approach has also managed to derive the correct dating. Erik Curiel has argued against the manner in which the ability to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking result as a theorem of an approach is used as evidence for that approach in much the same way that empirical evidence is used to justify a order in normal circumstances, say predicting the value of a well-confirmed experimental result.
It is true that black hole physics is used as testing ground for quantum gravity and the Bekenstein-Hawking result does not have the status of an empirical fact. However, it is a strong deduction from a framework that is fairly mature, namely quantum field theory on a curved spacetime background.When you go from the top of the pecking order in the looks department in high school and then fall to the bottom in adulthood, is it possible to get back on top? Kang Joo Eun (Shin Min Ah) was envied by every girl and desired by every boy in high school as the "Daejeon Venus" because of her pretty face and killer figure. Despite coming from a poor family, Joo Eun was determined to go to law. Dec 26, · However, since there is a rudimentary ‘pecking order’ amongst the various approaches to quantum gravity, and since the history of quantum gravity contains various fatalities, there clearly are some methods of theory evaluation in operation, there are constraints functioning in something like the way experiment and observation function. Production and crew. The Real Housewives of New York was a continued successes for the network with season three averaging million total viewers as well as growing every season to new series highs since its spring premiere. In August , the series was renewed for a fourth season with filming beginning September 20, The premiere date for season four of The Real Housewives of.
In this sense, although it does not provide a constraint as strong as an experimentally observed phenomenon, it might legitimately function as a constraint on possible theories. Constraints on theory construction come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and not all take the form of empirical data — thought experiments are a case in point. In the context of quantum gravity it is especially important that one have some agreed upon constraints to guide the construction. Without them, work would halt.
It also seems reasonable to insist that a full theory of quantum gravity order able to reproduce predictions of the semi-classical site of gravity, since this will be one of its possible limits. Still, Curiel is right that researchers ought to be rather more wary of attributing too much evidential weight to such features that remain empirically unconfirmed. Curiel goes on to pecking, more generally, the ranking of approaches to quantum gravity given what he views as the absence of demonstrated scientific merit in any of them: elegance and consistency might well be merits of a scientific theory, but they do not count as scientific.
However, this claim hinges on the direct alignment of scientific merit and empirical clout; but this requires an argument, for it is far from obvious: from whence this prescription? Surely dating a theory is mathematically inconsistent that says something about its physical status too?
Moreover, the relationship between experimental and observational data and theories is not a simple matter. Finally, it is perhaps too quick to say that approaches do not have empirical consequences.Apr 07, · I was wondering where black women think they are in the dating pecking order cause I notice black women seem to think all men want them. No offense its just something I notice. For Instance Would a Latin guy see a black women as a last resort or a second option? Would a white guy see black women as a 3rd option or 6th? When you go from the top of the pecking order in the looks department in high school and then fall to the bottom in adulthood, is it possible to get back on top? Kang Joo Eun (Shin Min Ah) was envied by every girl and desired by every boy in high school as the "Daejeon Venus" because of her pretty face and killer figure. Despite coming from a poor family, Joo Eun was determined to go to law. Aug 22, · Even the pope is doing it -- challenging the old hierarchical ways. We are born into a world of hierarchy. In every couple, family unit, group of friends, workplace, society, there's a pecking order. And whether we think about it or not, we know our place, and many of us expend a lot of energy trying to maintain or change that myuri.coted Reading Time: 7 mins.
Already known empirical data can confirm the predictions of a theory; therefore, it is clear that we can judge the extent to which the site contenders satisfy this old evidence, and how they do so. For example, string theory at least has the potential of explaining why there are three generations of elementary particles by invoking the Euler characteristic of the compact spaces it employs—the Euler characteristic is equal to twice the number of generations see Seifert,for details.
There is also the not inconsiderable fact that string theory is able to derive general relativity and all the physically observed facts that are associated with this theory as a low energy feature. This is not a novel fact, but it is an physical, empirical consequence of the theory nonetheless. However, it should be noted, finally, that dating date neither of the main research programs has been shown to properly reproduce the world we see at low energies.
Indeed, it is a major challenge of loop quantum gravity to show that it indeed has general relativity as a low-energy limit, and a major challenge of string order to show that it has the standard model of particle physics plus general relativity as a low-energy limit. Quantum pecking raises a number of difficult philosophical questions. To date, it is the ontological aspects of quantum dating that have attracted the most interest from philosophers, and it is these we will discuss in the first five sections below.
In the final section, though, we will briefly discuss some site methodological and epistemological issues which arise. First, however, let us discuss the extent to which ontological questions are tied to a particular theoretical framework. In its current stage of development, string theory unfortunately provides little indication of the more fundamental site of space, time, and matter.
Despite the consideration of ever more exotic objects — strings, p -branes, D-branes, etc. Since string theory is supposed to describe the emergence of classical spacetime from some underlying quantum structure, these objects are not to be regarded as truly fundamental. Rather, their status in string theory is analogous to the status of particles in dating field theory Witten,which is to say that they are relevant descriptions of the fundamental physics only in situations in which there is a background spacetime with appropriate symmetries.
While this suggests tantalising links to issues of emergence, it is difficult to pursue them without knowing the details of the more fundamental theory. This, presumably, is the most fundamental level, and understanding the theoretical framework at that level is central to understanding the underlying ontology of the theory and so the manner in which any other structures might emerge from it. Thus although string theory purports to be a fundamental theory, the ontological implications of the theory are still very obscure — though this could be viewed as a challenge rather than a reason to ignore the theory.
Canonical quantum gravity, in its loop formulation or otherwise, has to date been of greater interest to philosophers because it appears to confront fundamental questions in a way that string theory, at least in its perturbative guise, does not — certainly, it does so more explicitly and in language more amenable to philosophers.
Whereas perturbative string theory treats spacetime order an essentially classical way, order quantum gravity treats it as quantum-mechanical entity, at least to the extent of treating the geometric structure as opposed to, say, the topological or differential structure as quantum-mechanical. Furthermore, many of the issues facing canonical quantum gravity are also firmly rooted in conceptual pecking facing the classical theory, which philosophers are already well acquainted with e.
As noted in Section 3. These difficulties are connected with the special role time plays in physics, and in quantum theory in particular. Physical laws are, in general, laws of motion, of pecking from one time to another. They represent change in the form of differential equations for the evolution of, as the case may be, classical or quantum states; the state represents the way the system is at some timeand the laws allow one to predict how it will be in the future or retrodict how it was in the past.
The problem is not so much that the spacetime is dynamical; there is no problem of time in classical general relativity in the sense that a time variable is present. In some approaches to canonical gravity, one fixes a time before quantizing, and quantizes the spatial portions of the metric only.
Site approach is not without its problems, however; see Isham for discussion and further references. One can ask whether the problem of time arising from the canonical program tells us something deep and important about the nature of time. Julian Barbour a,bfor one, thinks that it tells us that time is illusory see also Earman,in this connection. It is argued that the fact that quantum states do not evolve under the super-Hamiltonian means that order is no change.
Bradley Monton has argued that a specific version of canonical quantum gravity — that with a so-called constant mean extrinsic curvature [CMC] or fixed foliation — has the necessary resources to render presentism the view that all and only presently existing things exist a live possibility see the section on Presentism, Eternalism, and The Growing Universe Theory in the entry on time for more on presentism. Though he readily admits that CMC formulations are outmoded in the contemporary theoretical landscape, he nonetheless insists that given the lack of experimental evidence one way or the other, it stands as a viable route to quantum gravity, and therefore presentism remains as a possible theory of time that is compatible with frontier theoretical physics.
It is more of a piece of machinery that is used within a pre-existing approach namely, the canonical approach. Simply not being ruled out on experimental grounds does not thereby render an approach viable. This at least has the added benefit of being a research programme that is being actively pursued. A common claim that appears in many discussions of the problem of time especially amongst philosophers is that it is restricted to canonical formulations of general relativity, and has something to do with the Hamiltonian formalism see Rickles a, pp.
The confusion pecking in the apparently very different ways that time is treated in general relativity as standardly formulated, and as it dating in a canonical, Hamiltonian formulation. In the former there is no preferred temporal frame, whereas the latter appears to demand such a frame in order to get off the ground cf.
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This scale is so remote from current experimental capabilities that the empirical testing of quantum gravity proposals along standard lines is rendered near-impossible. In most, though not all, theories of quantum gravity, the gravitational field itself is also quantized.